The fourth training webinar of the INsPIRE project was held on September 16th, on Accountability and Financial Accountability in Higher Education. Speakers at the webinar were our own Prof. Riccardo Mussari and Prof. Pasquale Ruggiero from the University of Siena, coordinating institution of the project.




The session was introduced by Paulo Resende da Silva from the University of Evora, and was attended by +50 Iraqi colleagues, including Rectors, Vice-Rectors, academic staff members, the project focal points and more. The session was of high interest for the Iraqi collegues, since accountability is strongly related to the dimension of autonomy, and the relation between universities and the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

Accountability is a key concept for the management of the university, is a cordination mechanism, it entails the necessity for the organization to dialogue with the environment in which it operates. This necessity should be understood not as an obligation, but as an opportunity, to share information in a two-ways relations with the actors in its context. Explain, justify, establish a social relationship, gain confidence, acquire opinions, know the judgment.


Riccardo Mussari

Accountability is not only connected to compliance and responsiveness (being held to and taking account of) but also concerns transparency (giving accounts).”

Riccardo Mussari, Ph.D. in Business Administration, is Full Professor in Public Financial Management at the University of Siena, Italy. He is the coordinator of the Erasmus+ project INsPIRE. His main research interests are in the areas of public sector accounting, management control in public administrations, program evaluation, international public management and public governance. He is currently editor of the Italian academic leading journal in the area of public management (Azienda Pubblica). He is a member of the Editorial Board of various national and international journals. He works as a consultant for local and central public administrations.

Pasquale Ruggiero

The term accountability is made of the words account and ability. The ability of pursuing a goal. We should be autonomous, in organizing our activity to pursue a certain objective. In that case, we can be accountable.

Pasquale Ruggiero, PhD. in Public Management and Accounting, is Associate Professor of and Public Management at the University of Siena (Italy). He is the Delegate of the Rector to the Budget at the University of Siena. His research is focused mainly on public management accounting and control. He is currently a member of the Editorial Board of the Italian academic leading journal in the area of public management (Azienda Pubblica) and is a member of the Editorial Advisory Board of Management Decision and a member of the Editorial Board of Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management.

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